These forms are often spelled in various schools as Pinan, Pinon, or Pinion. These are the forms that represent the ‘Karate’ roots. This series of five forms is loosely based on the Okinawan Pinans and / or the Heians of Shotokan Karate. In this case, however, One Pinan is actually a version of Taikyoku Shodan substituted in place of Pinan Shodan / Heian Shodan. The Two Pinan currently in Shaolin Kempo was created by Professor Nick Cerio, and is based on the footwork of Taikyoku Shodan as opposed to the form Pinan Nidan which it replaced. Three Pinan, Four Pinan and Five Pinan resemble Pinan Sandan, Pinan Yondan and Pinan Godan respectively. There are some minor variations, but they are easily recognized as modified versions of the older Pinan series developed by Itosu Ankoh in about 1905.